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Artane (Trihexyphenidyl)
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Artane

Artane alters unusual nerve impulses and relaxes stiff muscles.

Other names for this medication:

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Sinemet, Levodopa, Carbidopa, Selegiline, Kemadrin, Benadryl, Cogentin, Banophen, Akineton, Allermax

 

Also known as:  Trihexyphenidyl.

Description

Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.

name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.

Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.

Brand name of Artane is Artane.

Dosage

Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.

If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Artane are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.

Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.

Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.

artane pediatric dose

Runner's dystonia has previously been described in small series or case reports as a lower limb, task-specific dystonia. We have occasionally encountered this disorder and recognized the same phenomenon in non-runners regularly engaging in lower limb exercise. We wished to characterize the syndrome further, including outcomes, treatment, and the diagnostic usefulness of electrophysiology.

artane y alcohol

Effects of trihexyphenidyl (THP) were examined on the slow action potentials (SAP) induced by isoproterenol (Iso), histamine (His), Bay k 8644 or tetrodotoxin (TTX), in guinea pig papillary muscles. THP 10, 50, and 100 mumol.L-1 depressed the maximal upstroke velocity (Vmax) and the action potential amplitude (APA) of SAP. These effects were reversed partially by the elevation of the concentration of calcium from 2.0 to 5.6 mmol.L-1. The results suggest that THP can inhibit calcium inflow in myocardium.

artane overdose symptoms

A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. A systematic literature search was carried out. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced.

artane drug wikipedia

Antipsychotics are often used in conjunction with anti-Alzheimer drugs to treat the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Here, we examined the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), donepezil and galantamine, on antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) in mice. The effects of serotonergic agents on the EPS drug interaction were also evaluated. Donepezil (0.3-3 mg/kg) did not induce EPS signs by itself; however, it significantly potentiated bradykinesia induction with a low dose of haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg) in dose-dependent and synergistic manners. Galantamine (0.3-3 mg/kg) elicited mild bradykinesia at a high dose and dose-dependently augmented haloperidol-induced bradykinesia. The EPS potentiation by galantamine was blocked by trihexyphenidyl (a muscarinic antagonist), but not by mecamylamine (a nicotinic antagonist). In addition, the bradykinesia potentiation by galantamine was significantly reduced by (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (a 5-HT1A agonist), ritanserin (a 5-HT2 antagonist), and SB-258585 (a 5-HT6 antagonist). The present results give us a caution for the antipsychotics and ChEIs interaction in inducing EPS in the treatment of BPSD. In addition, second generation antipsychotics, which can stimulate 5-HT1A receptors or antagonize 5-HT2 and 5-HT6 receptors, seem to be favorable as an adjunctive therapy for BPSD.

artane drug abuse

The lowest detection limits of trihexyphenidyl, chlorpromazine and clozapine were 0.3, 0.3 and 0.7 ng/mL (S/N > or = 3) respectively. The calibration curve in 20-10 000 ng/mL showed a good linear distribution. The recovery rate was 79.9% to 85.5%. The RSDs of intraday and interday were less than 5.1%.

artane drug classification

The clinical efficacy of the trihexyphenidyl was investigated in 100 patients with movement disorders. The study group consisted of 54 women and 46 men. Their ages ranged from 18 to 70 years, and their duration of illness varied from a few months to 36 years. Each patient had a videotape of the movements and a neurological examination, before administration of the drug, at the time of maximum or effective dosage, and one week after withdrawal from trihexyphenidyl. The drug was administered at an initial total daily dose of 2 mg and gradually increased to a total daily dose of 60 mg over a period of 4-6 weeks. Improvements were rated both clinically and from the videotapes. Three groups of movement disorders demonstrated a significant response to trihexyphenidyl: (1) dystonia 37%; tonic torticollis demonstrated a significantly better response than the clonic variant (80% vs. 22%). (2) rhythmic-oscillatory movements of brainstem-cerebellar origin (palatal myoclonus, pendular nystagmus, facial myokymia) 90%; (3) cerebellar tremor 75%. Among 32 responders, 17 (56%) continued taking trihexyphenidyl beyond 24 months. Side effects consisted of dryness of the mouth, jitteriness, stomatitis, blurred vision, and forgetfulness.

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We conducted a prospective study of 20 consecutive patients treated with the anti-cholinergic agent trihexyphenidyl after bilateral STN-DBS and assessed the effect of anti-cholinergic therapy on parkinsonism 1 month after its initiation using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS).

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Vesamicol inhibits the vesicular loading of acetylcholine molecules. The effects of vesamicol and similarly acting compounds on neuromuscular transmission in frogs were investigated to determine whether these inhibitors-inhibit the frequency augmentation-potentiation of transmitter release. Various vesicular acetylcholine transport blockers suppressed the stimulation frequency-related release parameter, k, in a dose-dependent manner. Artane, cetiedil, chloroquine, ethodin, quinacrine, vesamicol and its benzyl-analogue, 2-(4-benzylpiperidino)cyclohexanol, had strong effects, while those of aminacrine, chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, imipramine, pyrilamine and thioridazine were weak. A significant correlation was observed between the biochemically reported values of IC50 and the electrophysiological inhibitory potencies on k at 20 microM. Contrary to expectations from the biochemical data, however, vesamicol and its benzyl-analogue showed equipotent inhibitory actions on the electrophysiological frequency augmentation-potentiation relation. Low sensitivity and low selectivity of the frequency augmentation-potentiation for vesamicol and its benzyl-analogue lead us to conclude that the vesicular acetylcholine transporter is not the site of the electrophysiological action of vesamicol and similarly acting chemicals.

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The degree of arrest of movement (microcatalepsy) induced by haloperidol at doses equipotent for operant rate suppression was measured with computerized instrumentation. The inbred C57BL/6 mouse strain displayed more susceptibility to microcatalepsy than the CD-1 and BALB/c strains. In addition, the C57BL/6 strain exhibited a greater degree of sensitization to repeated dosing than did the other 2 strains. The results were consistent with the C57BL/6 mouse's hypodopaminergic profile reported in the literature but were at odds with results reported for conventional catalepsy testing. The C57BL/6 mouse may serve as a model for genetic vulnerability to extrapyramidal motor side effects and may be useful in quantifying the mild extrapyramidal motor side effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs.

artane medication

Three novel GCH1 mutations were identified in two patients. One patient was a compound heterozygote with asymptomatic carrier parents. The clinical phenotype of patients with and without GCH1 mutations was similar.

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Wireless telemetry devices with biopotential channels were implanted to the bicep and the rectus femori muscles in Dyt1 knock-in mice, and muscular activities were recorded before and after trihexyphenidyl administration.

artane drug information

We included 23 professional musicians (4 female, 19 male; mean age 51.5 ± 11.4 years) with a TSTM. During anamnesis, clinical examination, by mail or via telephone patients were asked for epidemiological, phenomenological information, risk factors and treatments. We then compared our findings to primary writing tremor, the most common task specific tremor.

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Extracellular single-cell recording techniques were employed to study the mechanism of action of repeated oral clozapine administration on the in vivo spontaneous activity of substantia nigra (A9) and ventral tegmental area (A10) dopamine (DA)-containing neurons in the rat. Clozapine was observed to affect DA neurons differentially within these two regions when compared to haloperidol. Acute treatment (1 hr) with both drugs increased the number of spontaneously firing neurons in both A9 and A10. Chronic (21 day) treatment with haloperidol decreased the number of cells encountered in both regions, whereas repeated treatment with clozapine reduced the number of DA cells per track only in A10. In all cases, the silent DA neurons were inferred to be in a state of depolarization inactivation since they could be induced to discharge normally by the microiontophoretic application of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. These effects were not due to an effect of chloral hydrate anesthesia since they were also observed in gallamine-paralyzed, artificially respired animals. Chronic co-administration with haloperidol of either an anticholinergic (trihexyphenidyl) or the alpha 1-norepinephrine (NE) receptor antagonist, prazosin, but not an alpha 2-NE antagonist, RX781094, resulted in a differential effect on A9 and A10 DA neurons identical to that observed with repeated clozapine administration alone. Thus, chronic treatment with these combinations of drugs resulted in the depolarization inactivation of only A10 cells. These data suggest that anticholinergic and/or alpha 1-NE-blocking properties of clozapine may, in part, mediate its differential effects on A9 and A10 midbrain DA neurons.

artane medication dystonia

Movement Disorder-Childhood Rating Scale (MD-CRS) is a new tool for assessment of movement disorders during developmental age.

artane medication class

To clarify the factors determining the amelioration of Meige's syndrome, changes of involuntary movements (IVMs) and functional disability, we examined 60 patients with Meige's syndrome during 5 years after the onset. On average, they showed gradual worsening of IVMs for approximately 2.1 years, then the IVMs ameliorated slowly. In many patients, blepharospasm appeared as the first symptom. Subsequent IVMs were seen in vicinity of the muscles of orbicularis oculi. Phasic involuntary contractions changed to tonic ones in some patients. Asynchrony of the IVMs in various facial or neck muscles may be originated from extensive pathological changes and high excitability in the brainstem. The factors determining the amelioration of functional disability are: (1) younger onset, (2) shorter duration from the onset to the period showing the worst symptoms, (3) mild IVMs when the symptoms were the worst, (4) shorter duration from the onset to the beginning of therapy, (5) synchrony of the IVMs between the muscles of orbicularis oculi and other muscles. Methylphenidate, trihexyphenidyl, and ceruletide showed a higher efficiency for IVMs than the other drugs. The drug therapy in Meige's syndrome should be started as early as possible.

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Bilateral microinjection of delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) (10.0 nmol) into the substantia nigra provoked hypokinesia and rigidity in rats observed during 4.0 hours. Injection of DSIP in dose of 5.0 nmol into the substantia nigra or into the nuclei caudati in dose of 10.0 nmol did not induce such symptoms. The enhanced slow-wave activity was recorded in caudate nuclei during hypokinesia and rigidity which demonstrated the formation of the generator of pathologically enhanced excitation (GPEE). The systemically cyclodol administration resulted in abolishment of rigidity and increase in locomotor activity. The conclusion is that bilateral intranigral DSIP injection caused acute parkinson syndrome in rats due to the formation of cholinergic GPEE in caudate nuclei. The hyperactive caudate nuclei act as the pathologic determinant which induces the parkinson syndrome.

artane drug interactions

The protective effects of simultaneous and continuous administration of physostigmine and trihexyphenidyl against soman-induced toxicity were studied in guinea pigs. Not only did trihexyphenidyl reduce physostigmine-induced toxicity when it was administered continuously to the animals along with physostigmine, the combination afforded greater protection from soman lethality than did either agent administered alone. The combination pretreatment also gave better protection against soman-induced body weight loss and decreased water consumption and attenuated the down-regulation of cholinergic receptors which occurred when physostigmine alone was used. The onsets of other soman-induced toxicity signs were delayed significantly by the combination pretreatment regimen. These results suggest that simultaneous administration of the combination of physostigmine and trihexyphenidyl may be more useful than physostigmine alone as prophylaxis against soman poisoning.

artane drug class

Drooling is the inability to retain saliva in the mouth and its progression to the digestive tract, being a common problem in pediatric patients with neurological disorders. Three different treatment options are available.

artane pediatric dosing

High stereoselectivity was observed for the enantiomers of trihexyphenidyl and trihexyphenidyl methiodide at muscarinic M1-receptors in field-stimulated rabbit vas deferens and at M2 alpha- and M2 beta-receptors in guinea-pig atrium and ileum, respectively. Considerably higher affinities (up to 1700-fold) were found for the (R)-(-)-enantiomers. The stereochemical demands made by the muscarinic receptor subtypes were most stringent at the M1-receptors. The (R)-(-)-enantiomers were found to be potent M1-selective antagonists (pA2 = 10.1/10.6). They showed a 91- and 45-fold selectivity for M1- over M2 alpha-receptors, respectively.

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A 36 year old psychotic man receiving treatment with slow-release pipotiazine and trihexyphenidyl developed nine days after addition of droperidol signs suggestive of a malignant neuroleptic syndrome: altered general condition, diffuse hypertonia, akinesia, fever and vomiting. Results of biologic tests and a muscle biopsy were suggestive of a severe rhabdomyolysis. Cessation of neuroleptic therapy and the administrative of nifedipine brought a gradual return return to normal conditions, and progressively increasing doses of neuroleptic could be given without complications 12 days later. Onset of hyperthermia during neuroleptic treatment raises two questions: 1) is the etiology related to a malignant neuroleptic syndrome or acute catatonia, or a heat stroke? 2) to what extent are neuroleptics responsible for these disorders?

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artane drugs 2016-07-06

This case demonstrates that medically resistant Holmes' tremor related to a thalamic lesion can be successfully treated with thalamic buy artane deep brain stimulation.

artane maximum dose 2015-02-09

We describe a 46- buy artane year-old woman who presented with lingual dystonia induced only by speaking, which responded well to anticholinergic treatment.

artane overdose symptoms 2016-07-24

Studies on the circadian rhythm of urine excretion in healthy men have demonstrated that the maximal urine flow occurs in the early afternoon and the minimal around midnight. In this study, an abnormality in the variation of urine volume was found in parkinsonian patients. Urine samples were collected during daytime (9: buy artane 00-21:00) and nighttime (21:00-9:00). Fifteen healthy control subjects were examined and found to excrete 60% during the daytime and 40% during the nighttime of the total urine volume. Sixteen parkinsonian patients excreted 43% during the daytime and 57% during the nighttime. In contrast to the control subjects, the parkinsonian patients excreted a smaller volume of their urine during the daytime than during the nighttime. This finding might be related to the degeneration of dopaminergic and/or nondopaminergic neurons in the brain which control urinary excretion.

artane max dose 2016-12-31

Status dystonicus (SD) is a medical emergency weighed by a relevant morbidity and mortality. It mainly affects patients with primary or secondary dystonia and is often triggered by events such as fever, infections, exposure medications buy artane or their abrupt cessation. We report on three patients presenting with SD. Two of them were affected by a static encephalopathy and the other one by a neurodegenerative disorder such as megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC). To our knowledge this is the first patient affected by MLC presenting with SD. All our patients underwent continuous infusion of midazolam, in association with pimozide and trihexyphenidyl, which led to complete resolution of muscular spasms in two patients. In the other one a complete cessation of dystonic spasms was obtained after intrathecal baclofen. From a therapeutic point of view there are no evidence-based management guidelines in SD. The approach is empiric and based on very limited anecdotal reports. On the basis of our observations and an extensive review of the literature we delineated a possible therapeutic strategy of SD in children.

parkinson drug artane 2016-07-01

We conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial of two anticholinergic agents--trihexyphenidyl and tridihexethyl chloride (a quaternary anticholinergic that does not cross buy artane the blood-brain barrier)--in patients with acquired nystagmus and measured visual acuity and nystagmus before and at the end of 1 month on each medication. Of the 10 patients admitted to the study, only five completed trials of both drugs due to intolerance of medication or intercurrent illness. Of six patients who completed the trial of trihexyphenidyl, only one showed improvement. Of six patients who completed a trial of tridihexethyl chloride, four showed improvement. We conclude that (1) trihexyphenidyl is not a reliable treatment for acquired nystagmus, although occasional patients may benefit; (2) anticholinergic agents may suppress nystagmus by peripheral rather than central mechanisms; and (3) the side effects of anticholinergic agents limit their effectiveness in the treatment of nystagmus.

artane pediatric dose 2017-05-15

Male Wistar rats were trained to press a lever with food reinforcement according to a continuously reinforced schedule (CRF). Afterwards, rats were subjected to three experimental sessions (30 min each) during which responding was rewarded according to a progressive ratio schedule (following an initial 2-min CRF period, the number of presses necessary for the pellet delivery was doubled every second minute). Responding during the first half of each session, i.e., pressing for food, was maintained at a buy artane significant level, whereas it was almost suppressed during the second part of the session. As compared to controls (200 +/- 20 presses/30 min) animals given amfonelic acid (0.5, 1 mg/kg IP), methylphenidate (4, 8 mg/kg IP), caffeine (16 mg/kg IP), cocaine (4 mg/kg IP), oxolinic acid (32 mg/kg IP), nomifensine (4 mg/kg IP), DR 250 (2, 4 mg/kg IP) and d-amphetamine (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg IP) showed an increased rate of responding ranging from 400 to 950 presses/30 min. In contrast, apomorphine, MK 486 + L-dopa, trihexyphenidyl, imipramine, salbutamol and diazepam did not increase responding. These results suggested that this test is highly sensitive for psychomotor stimulants and perhaps for their ability to enhance the reinforcing value of the reward or stimuli associated with the reward. Such activity seemed related to a catecholaminergic substrate since the increase of responding induced by amphetamine was blocked by pimozide, d,l-propranolol and prazosin.

artane 2 mg 2015-05-03

In a double-blind, randomized study we recorded the EMG activities of 420 neck muscles in 42 patients with CD before and after treatment with BTA or trihexyphenidyl. We regarded any needle EMG buy artane activity higher than 100 microV as the gold standard for involuntary involvement of a muscle in the dystonic posture and compared this with the results of physical examination. We calculated EMG total scores by adding the scores of the individual muscles.

artane pediatric dosage 2016-10-18

In the experiments in vivo it is found buy artane that the receptor selectivity of muscarine antagonist glypine is time-dependent unlike atropine, amedine, benzhexol, benactyzine, and thropacin. Using modulation of the metabolic system activity it is shown that upon biotransformation glypine forms active metabolites that differs in receptor selectivity of the action.

artane medication dystonia 2016-12-01

We report a 67-year-old hypertensive right-handed woman who developed severe pain and dystonia in her left upper and lower extremity after a thalamic infarction. She was well until 9 months prior to the present admission to our hospital, when she had an acute onset of left hemiparesis which turned out to have been caused by a thalamic infarct. Her hemiparesis showed nearly complete recovery during the next four months. She noted an onset of severe spontaneous pain and difficulty in using her left hand four months prior to the present admission. Neurologic examination on admission revealed an alert and well oriented Japanese woman. Cranial nerves were buy artane intact. Although she did not have weakness, her left hand showed thalamic posture, and upon standing, she showed a dystonic posture in which her left forearm took pronation and flexion at the elbow joint and her left lower extremity took extension in the knee joint and planter flexion in the ankle joint. Her dystonic posture increased during walking and disappeared in the supine position. She complained of severe spontaneous pain and tingling sensation in her left extremities. Position sense was diminished in her left leg. However other sensations were intact. She had slight ataxia on the left side. Deep tendon reflexes were symmetric, but the planter response was extensor on the left side. MRI revealed a small lacunar infarct involving the right posterolateral thalamic region. EMG with surface electrodes revealed non-reciprocal tonic discharges in the left biceps brachii and forearm flexor and extensor muscles. She responded poorly to various medications. Only trihexyphenidyl showed partial alleviation of her pain and dystonic posture. We thought her pain might be caused by dystonic contraction of the skeletal muscles, at least in part. We injected 25 IU of botulinus toxin as a total dose into her biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and wrist flexor muscles. A few days after the injection, her dystonic posture began to show marked improvement; as her dystonia improved, her pain also showed marked improvement. This patient appeared to represent a case of post-hemiplegic dystonia. Her pain was initially thought to be the thalamic pain. However, as her pain disappeared with improvement of her dystonia, her pain is most likely to have been caused by the dystonic muscle contraction. Botulinus toxin treatment appears to be useful for post-hemiplegic painful dystonia.

artane pill sizes 2015-09-09

The results suggest that the motor deficits in Dyt1 knock-in mice are likely produced by abnormal muscle contractions, and Dyt1 knock-in mice can potentially be used as a manifesting disease model to study pathophysiology and develop novel therapeutics. © 2016 International buy artane Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

artane reviews 2016-12-21

Hartnup disease is an inborn abnormality of renal and intestinal transport involving the neutral amino acids. Intermittent pellagra-like rash, attacks of cerebellar ataxia and psychiatric disturbance are characteristic symptoms of this disease. We described here a patient with adult-onset Hartnup disease who presented unique neuropsychiatric symptoms but no dermatologic symptoms, and reported features of amino acids transport in this patient and his family. The patient, a man aged 37 years, was referred to us because of lasting daytime bruxism. He is the second child of healthy parents who are first cousin; his elder brother who has been mentally retarded became bed-ridden and died at 32 years of age. His younger brother is completely healthy. Although the patient's development in infancy has been slightly retarded, he completed compulsory 9-year education. At 29 years of age, he experienced episodes of diplopia, ataxic gait and insomnia, and at 33 years of age, of transient stupor. There had been no history of photosensitivity or dermatitis. On neurological examination, there were trunkal ataxia, increased muscular tone and decreased mental activity besides bruxism. These symptoms remained unchanged despite of several medications including trihexyphenidyl, diazepam, halloperidol, tiapride and sulpiride. Two months later, the patient became stuporous; bruxism and hypertonicity became exaggerated. Myerson's sign, sucking reflex and grasp reflex in both hand appeared. There was no dermal lesion. A cranial computed tomography revealed a small buy artane calcification in the right frontal subcortical region and a single photon emission tomography indicated possible bifrontal hypoperfusion. Electroencephalograms demonstrated non-specific slowing. Somatosensory evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocities were normal. There were constant indicanuria and amino-aciduria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

artane medication dosage 2015-03-20

We report a 71-year-old woman with tactile hallucinations induced by trihexyphenidyl. Six and a half months after starting trihexyphenidyl, this patient with Parkinson's disease complained of tactile hallucinations, mainly on her feet, at night while in bed. Four days after stopping the medication, the sensations disappeared. Although tactile hallucinations induced by trihexyphenidyl are rare, it should be noted that the condition can be buy artane induced by anti-Parkinson's disease drugs.

artane pills 2015-07-16

To study the buy artane effects of Qing-Xuan tablets (QXT) on behavior pattern and striatal TNF-alpha in mice model of Parkinson's disease (PD).

artane tab 2016-04-09

The antiparkinsonian drug trihexyphenidyl (THP) is currently manufactured and administered as a racemate. However, stereochemistry can play significant role in the drug's pharmacokinetics, biotransformation, metabolism, interaction with cellular and tissue components and overall effect on human body. It is necessary to consider such a drug as a mixture of two compounds (drug enantiomers), with their own effect on the human body. The present paper describes a simple and sensitive LC-MS method for the stereoselective determination of THP in human serum. In this study, the sample was prepared by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The enantiomer separation was done using native beta-cyclodextrin stationary phase LC column. The combination of ESI-MS detection and SPE showed excellent sensitivity and selectivity of the method. The limits of detection of <0.1 ng/ml can be easily achieved, which is 7,000 times lower than the detection limits achievable by a UV detection method. The method has at least a 3-order of magnitude linear dynamic range for buy artane both enantiomers (concentrations up to 1,323 ng/ml were tested). This is 24 times wider than the therapeutic range of THP (peak THP plasma concentration of 55 ng/ml was previously reported). The recoveries of THP enantiomers from the human serum were > 95%.

artane drug 2017-09-30

A pretreatment for organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase (e.g., soman) intoxication should prevent lethality and convulsions (CNV) at 2 LD50s and be behavioral-decrement- Requip Xl Dose free when given alone. Behavioral-deficit-free pretreatment regimens (PRGs) for guinea pigs consisted of Physostigmine (0.15 mg/kg, im) and adjunct. Adjuncts [mg/kg, im] tested were akineton [0.25], aprophen [8], trihexyphenidyl [2], atropine [16], azaprophen [5], benactyzine [1.25], cogentin [4], dextromethorphan [7.5], ethopropazine [12], kemadrin [1], memantine [5], promethazine [5], scopolamine [0.08] and vontrol [2]. PRGs were given 30 min before soman (60 micrograms/kg, sc; 2 LD50s) or other OP agents. Animals were then observed and graded for signs of intoxication, including CNV at 7 time points and at 24 hr. Physostigmine alone reduced the incidence of CNV and lethality induced by 2 LD50s of soman by 42 and 60%, respectively. All of the PRGs tested abolished lethality and 12 shortened recovery time to 2 hr or less. Also, PRGs including azaprophen or atropine prevented CNV. When selected PRGs were tested against intoxication by sarin, tabun or VX, the efficacy was generally superior to that for soman. The data show that several PRGs are effective against soman intoxication in guinea pigs.

artane medication class 2015-06-14

Dystonias occur frequently as repetitive movements, persistent elevations of muscle tone, or tonic contortions, whereby the cause is assumed to be an impairment of basal ganglia function. Focal dystonias are especially known in musicians, although little is reported on focal dystonias in athletic stress. The present case report describes the case of a 34-yr-old professional tennis player with bilateral Zyrtec 300 Mg segmental dystonia. The symptoms were expressed in involuntary movements when he intended to hit the ball and in a progredient tremor, initially in one hand, later in both, making him unable to write. The altered mobility during athletic stress was confirmed by video analysis, the altered innervation with excessive, uncoordinated impulse influx by means of electromyography during sport-type specific stress, and writing incapacity during a writing test. The symptoms abated under therapy with trihexyphenidyl-HCL, so that the patient has been able to work as a tennis coach with improved athletic performance for the past 3 yr. It is concluded that the various forms of dystonia should be included in the differential diagnosis of impaired coordinative movements under athletic exercise, especially of the upper extremities.

artane drug wikipedia 2016-08-27

Our review suggests that botulinum toxin type A (BTA), botulinum toxin type B (BTB) and trihexyphenidyl are safe and efficacious treatments for CD. Evidence shows that botulinum toxin therapies are more reliable for symptomatic relief and have fewer adverse effects than trihexyphenidyl. When comparing BTA to BTB, both are Voltaren Dosage 75mg found to have similar clinical benefits, with BTA possibly having a longer duration of action and a marginally better side effect profile. BTB is also safe and probably just as efficacious a treatment in those patients who are unresponsive or have become resistant to BTA.

artane 5 mg 2016-04-03

The systematic and long term association of anti-parkinsonian drugs to neuroleptics is questioned by many authors because of their side effects and their toxicomanogenous risks whereas their efficiency in extrapyramidal effects of prophylaxis is not certain. This work aims at evaluating the interest of prescribing long term parkinsonian drug in association with neuroleptics. The study centered on 101 psychotic patients treated with neuroleptics, and followed on an ambulatory bases. 97% of this patients systematically received antiparkinsonian drugs. Extrapyramidal symptoms of varied intensity have noted for 61% of patients. The authors have compared, in double blind, the effects of the progressive and abrupt withdrawal of anti-parkinsonian drugs for 37 patients among the 101. These patients have been regularly treated for at least 6 months by neuroleptics (fluphenazine or pipothiazine) in association with trihexyphenidyle. They were randomly divided into 3 groups, and statified by sex and type of neuroleptic. For group I, composed of 13 patients, trihexyphenidyle is abruptly withdrawn and replaced by a placebo. For group II, composed of 11 patients, withdrawal is progressive for 2 weeks, trihexyphenidyle being replaced by a placebo. Group III, composed of 13 patients, is a sample group which went on receiving trihexyphenidyle. The results of this study showed that within the brutal withdrawal group (group Buy Glucotrol Online I), 10 patients over 13 needed trihexyphenidyle again, whereas only 3 patients over 11 needed it in the progressive withdrawal group (group II). In the sample group (group III), one patient over 13 showed extrapyramidal symptoms, necessitating his leaving school. The global chi 2 is significant with p < 0.001.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

artane medication trihexyphenidyl 2017-02-19

Anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs administered orally at standard clinically prescribed doses impaired new memory acquisition and mood in normal volunteer subjects, based on tests of free recall, recognition memory, and time production, self-rating of memory function, and an evaluation of mood states. Elderly subjects were more severely impaired than were young adults. Amantadine did not impair new memory acquisition, and on self-report measures, it was significantly better tolerated than were anticholinergics. Among patients Aciphex Reviews Gastritis being treated for psychotic illness, there are two groups in which an effort to avoid anticholinergic therapy is especially worthwhile because of the severe consequences of memory dysfunction. These individuals are young neuroleptic-responsive patients who are in an early stage of their disease and elderly patients. For these two groups, amantadine should be considered as the initial mode of treatment, with low-dose anticholinergics being used for those patients who do not achieve adequate relief from extrapyramidal side effects with amantadine.

artane medication 2015-09-21

1 The effect of pharmacological pretreatment (pyridostigmine, benactyzine and trihexyphenidyle), designated Panpal, and antidotal treatment (the oxime HI-6 plus benactyzine) in soman poisoning was investigated in a rat model with on-line monitoring of respiratory and circulatory parameters. 2 Soman poisoning caused a high decrease in respiratory rate as well as minute respiratory volume and an increase in mean arterial pressure from 30-120 min following soman challenge. Soman at sublethal dose also significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in diaphragm and various brain parts. 3 Panpal pretreatment as well as antidotal treatment were effective in improving the respiratory and circulatory function disturbed by soman without the ability to increase significantly soman-inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in all brain parts studied. 4 The efficacy of combined Panpal pretreatment and antidotal treatment against sublethal soman poisoning was not different from the efficacy of Panpal pretreatment or antidotal treatment alone. 5 The Zanaflex Pill High results of this investigation suggest that Panpal pretreatment as well as antidotal treatment are able to restore respiratory and circulatory function in soman-poisoned rats without significant reactivation of brain acetylcholinesterase.

artane dosage 2015-09-21

Here, we used M(5) receptor knockout (M(5)-/-) mice to investigate the involvement of M(5) receptors in behavioral measures pertinent to Detrol La Cost schizophrenia. We tested the hypothesis that disruption of M(5) receptors affected PPI or the effects of muscarinic or dopaminergic agents in PPI or psychomotor stimulation.

artane pediatric dosing 2016-08-12

A paucity of information exists regarding medications to treat dystonia in children with cerebral palsy. This study sought to review the benefits and tolerability of trihexyphenidyl in children with cerebral palsy, treated for dystonia or sialorrhea or both in a pediatric tertiary care hospital, through a retrospective chart review. In total, 101 patients (61 boys and 40 girls) were evaluated. The mean age at drug initiation was 7 years and 10 months (range, 1-18 years). The mean initial dose was 0.095 mg/kg/day. The dose was increased by 10-20% no sooner than every Cozaar Medication Classification 2 weeks. The mean maximum dose reached was 0.55 mg/kg/day. Ninety-three patients (91%) tolerated the medication well, with a mean duration of treatment of 3 years and 7 months. Side effects occurred in 69% of subjects, the majority in patients aged ≥7 years, and soon after treatment initiation. Sixty-four percent continued the treatment at study end. Ninety-seven patients reported benefits, including reduction of dystonia in upper (59.4%) and lower (37.6%) extremities, sialorrhea (60.4%), and speech issues (24.7%). The majority of patients tolerated trihexyphenidyl well on a schedule of gradual dose increases, and almost all demonstrated improvements in dystonia or sialorrhea or both.

artane drug information 2017-02-20

The effects of the "atypical" antipsychotic olanzapine and several other antipsychotics were examined using a conflict schedule. Rats were trained to respond for food on a three-component schedule, comprising variable-interval 30s (food, VI30) and fixed-ratio 10s (food + shock, FR10) components separated by time-out (TO). Olanzapine (0.3125-1.25mg/kg), clozapine (1.25-5mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (2.5-5mg/kg) decreased or had no effect on VI30 responding, whereas responding in the FR10 component increased. Chlordiazepoxide (5mg/kg) also increased TO responding. The antipsychotic agents haloperidol (0.125 and 0.25mg/kg), trifluoperazine (0.0625-0.25mg/kg), remoxipride (1.25-5mg/kg) and risperidone (0.0625-0.5mg/kg) decreased V130 responding and either had no effect, or decreased TO and FR10 rates. The anticholinergic agent scopolamine (0.03125-0.25mg/kg) decreased VI30 responding. The 5-HT(2) antagonist ritanserin (2.5 and 5mg/kg) and the anticholinergic agent trihexyphenidyl (2.5 and 5mg/kg) had no effect on responding. Flumezanil (10mg/kg) reduced the anticonflict effect of chlordiazepoxide but not olanzapine. These results further emphasize the unusual profile of olanzapine.

artane 1 mg 2017-08-27

We studied the effect of anti-cholinergic therapy on axial symptoms that show a tendency to worsen over time after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).

artane tablets 2016-08-24

Use of antipsychotic medications is associated with changes to colonic architecture. This could predispose such a patient to difficult colonoscopy and therefore increase colonoscopy-associated risks. Medication history should be elicited prior to colonoscopy.

artane drug classification 2017-07-16

QXT increased the behavior of mice in behavioral tests (open field, pole test, grid test) (P<0.05 or P<0.01) but depressed TNF-alpha activity in striatum (P<0.05).

artane medication uses 2016-02-02

Analysis of clinical database of patients with tic disorders.

artane brand name 2015-04-28

After treatment, the frequency of average urination of 24 hours, frequency of incontinence of 24 hours and average urine volume at a time were obviously improved (all P < 0. 01), of which, the above items in group A were superior to those in group B (all P < 0. 05) the UPDRSIII score in group A was superior to that in group B (P < 0.05). The adverse reactions in group A were less than those in group B.