Artane alters unusual nerve impulses and relaxes stiff muscles.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Trihexyphenidyl.
Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.
name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.
Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.
Brand name of Artane is Artane.
Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.
If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.
If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Artane are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.
Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.
Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.
Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.
Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.
Avoid driving machine.
It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.
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Runner's dystonia has previously been described in small series or case reports as a lower limb, task-specific dystonia. We have occasionally encountered this disorder and recognized the same phenomenon in non-runners regularly engaging in lower limb exercise. We wished to characterize the syndrome further, including outcomes, treatment, and the diagnostic usefulness of electrophysiology.
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Effects of trihexyphenidyl (THP) were examined on the slow action potentials (SAP) induced by isoproterenol (Iso), histamine (His), Bay k 8644 or tetrodotoxin (TTX), in guinea pig papillary muscles. THP 10, 50, and 100 mumol.L-1 depressed the maximal upstroke velocity (Vmax) and the action potential amplitude (APA) of SAP. These effects were reversed partially by the elevation of the concentration of calcium from 2.0 to 5.6 mmol.L-1. The results suggest that THP can inhibit calcium inflow in myocardium.
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A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. A systematic literature search was carried out. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced.
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Antipsychotics are often used in conjunction with anti-Alzheimer drugs to treat the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Here, we examined the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), donepezil and galantamine, on antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) in mice. The effects of serotonergic agents on the EPS drug interaction were also evaluated. Donepezil (0.3-3 mg/kg) did not induce EPS signs by itself; however, it significantly potentiated bradykinesia induction with a low dose of haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg) in dose-dependent and synergistic manners. Galantamine (0.3-3 mg/kg) elicited mild bradykinesia at a high dose and dose-dependently augmented haloperidol-induced bradykinesia. The EPS potentiation by galantamine was blocked by trihexyphenidyl (a muscarinic antagonist), but not by mecamylamine (a nicotinic antagonist). In addition, the bradykinesia potentiation by galantamine was significantly reduced by (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (a 5-HT1A agonist), ritanserin (a 5-HT2 antagonist), and SB-258585 (a 5-HT6 antagonist). The present results give us a caution for the antipsychotics and ChEIs interaction in inducing EPS in the treatment of BPSD. In addition, second generation antipsychotics, which can stimulate 5-HT1A receptors or antagonize 5-HT2 and 5-HT6 receptors, seem to be favorable as an adjunctive therapy for BPSD.
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The lowest detection limits of trihexyphenidyl, chlorpromazine and clozapine were 0.3, 0.3 and 0.7 ng/mL (S/N > or = 3) respectively. The calibration curve in 20-10 000 ng/mL showed a good linear distribution. The recovery rate was 79.9% to 85.5%. The RSDs of intraday and interday were less than 5.1%.
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The clinical efficacy of the trihexyphenidyl was investigated in 100 patients with movement disorders. The study group consisted of 54 women and 46 men. Their ages ranged from 18 to 70 years, and their duration of illness varied from a few months to 36 years. Each patient had a videotape of the movements and a neurological examination, before administration of the drug, at the time of maximum or effective dosage, and one week after withdrawal from trihexyphenidyl. The drug was administered at an initial total daily dose of 2 mg and gradually increased to a total daily dose of 60 mg over a period of 4-6 weeks. Improvements were rated both clinically and from the videotapes. Three groups of movement disorders demonstrated a significant response to trihexyphenidyl: (1) dystonia 37%; tonic torticollis demonstrated a significantly better response than the clonic variant (80% vs. 22%). (2) rhythmic-oscillatory movements of brainstem-cerebellar origin (palatal myoclonus, pendular nystagmus, facial myokymia) 90%; (3) cerebellar tremor 75%. Among 32 responders, 17 (56%) continued taking trihexyphenidyl beyond 24 months. Side effects consisted of dryness of the mouth, jitteriness, stomatitis, blurred vision, and forgetfulness.
We conducted a prospective study of 20 consecutive patients treated with the anti-cholinergic agent trihexyphenidyl after bilateral STN-DBS and assessed the effect of anti-cholinergic therapy on parkinsonism 1 month after its initiation using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS).
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Vesamicol inhibits the vesicular loading of acetylcholine molecules. The effects of vesamicol and similarly acting compounds on neuromuscular transmission in frogs were investigated to determine whether these inhibitors-inhibit the frequency augmentation-potentiation of transmitter release. Various vesicular acetylcholine transport blockers suppressed the stimulation frequency-related release parameter, k, in a dose-dependent manner. Artane, cetiedil, chloroquine, ethodin, quinacrine, vesamicol and its benzyl-analogue, 2-(4-benzylpiperidino)cyclohexanol, had strong effects, while those of aminacrine, chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, imipramine, pyrilamine and thioridazine were weak. A significant correlation was observed between the biochemically reported values of IC50 and the electrophysiological inhibitory potencies on k at 20 microM. Contrary to expectations from the biochemical data, however, vesamicol and its benzyl-analogue showed equipotent inhibitory actions on the electrophysiological frequency augmentation-potentiation relation. Low sensitivity and low selectivity of the frequency augmentation-potentiation for vesamicol and its benzyl-analogue lead us to conclude that the vesicular acetylcholine transporter is not the site of the electrophysiological action of vesamicol and similarly acting chemicals.
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The degree of arrest of movement (microcatalepsy) induced by haloperidol at doses equipotent for operant rate suppression was measured with computerized instrumentation. The inbred C57BL/6 mouse strain displayed more susceptibility to microcatalepsy than the CD-1 and BALB/c strains. In addition, the C57BL/6 strain exhibited a greater degree of sensitization to repeated dosing than did the other 2 strains. The results were consistent with the C57BL/6 mouse's hypodopaminergic profile reported in the literature but were at odds with results reported for conventional catalepsy testing. The C57BL/6 mouse may serve as a model for genetic vulnerability to extrapyramidal motor side effects and may be useful in quantifying the mild extrapyramidal motor side effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs.
Three novel GCH1 mutations were identified in two patients. One patient was a compound heterozygote with asymptomatic carrier parents. The clinical phenotype of patients with and without GCH1 mutations was similar.
Wireless telemetry devices with biopotential channels were implanted to the bicep and the rectus femori muscles in Dyt1 knock-in mice, and muscular activities were recorded before and after trihexyphenidyl administration.
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We included 23 professional musicians (4 female, 19 male; mean age 51.5 ± 11.4 years) with a TSTM. During anamnesis, clinical examination, by mail or via telephone patients were asked for epidemiological, phenomenological information, risk factors and treatments. We then compared our findings to primary writing tremor, the most common task specific tremor.
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Extracellular single-cell recording techniques were employed to study the mechanism of action of repeated oral clozapine administration on the in vivo spontaneous activity of substantia nigra (A9) and ventral tegmental area (A10) dopamine (DA)-containing neurons in the rat. Clozapine was observed to affect DA neurons differentially within these two regions when compared to haloperidol. Acute treatment (1 hr) with both drugs increased the number of spontaneously firing neurons in both A9 and A10. Chronic (21 day) treatment with haloperidol decreased the number of cells encountered in both regions, whereas repeated treatment with clozapine reduced the number of DA cells per track only in A10. In all cases, the silent DA neurons were inferred to be in a state of depolarization inactivation since they could be induced to discharge normally by the microiontophoretic application of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. These effects were not due to an effect of chloral hydrate anesthesia since they were also observed in gallamine-paralyzed, artificially respired animals. Chronic co-administration with haloperidol of either an anticholinergic (trihexyphenidyl) or the alpha 1-norepinephrine (NE) receptor antagonist, prazosin, but not an alpha 2-NE antagonist, RX781094, resulted in a differential effect on A9 and A10 DA neurons identical to that observed with repeated clozapine administration alone. Thus, chronic treatment with these combinations of drugs resulted in the depolarization inactivation of only A10 cells. These data suggest that anticholinergic and/or alpha 1-NE-blocking properties of clozapine may, in part, mediate its differential effects on A9 and A10 midbrain DA neurons.
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Movement Disorder-Childhood Rating Scale (MD-CRS) is a new tool for assessment of movement disorders during developmental age.
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To clarify the factors determining the amelioration of Meige's syndrome, changes of involuntary movements (IVMs) and functional disability, we examined 60 patients with Meige's syndrome during 5 years after the onset. On average, they showed gradual worsening of IVMs for approximately 2.1 years, then the IVMs ameliorated slowly. In many patients, blepharospasm appeared as the first symptom. Subsequent IVMs were seen in vicinity of the muscles of orbicularis oculi. Phasic involuntary contractions changed to tonic ones in some patients. Asynchrony of the IVMs in various facial or neck muscles may be originated from extensive pathological changes and high excitability in the brainstem. The factors determining the amelioration of functional disability are: (1) younger onset, (2) shorter duration from the onset to the period showing the worst symptoms, (3) mild IVMs when the symptoms were the worst, (4) shorter duration from the onset to the beginning of therapy, (5) synchrony of the IVMs between the muscles of orbicularis oculi and other muscles. Methylphenidate, trihexyphenidyl, and ceruletide showed a higher efficiency for IVMs than the other drugs. The drug therapy in Meige's syndrome should be started as early as possible.
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Bilateral microinjection of delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) (10.0 nmol) into the substantia nigra provoked hypokinesia and rigidity in rats observed during 4.0 hours. Injection of DSIP in dose of 5.0 nmol into the substantia nigra or into the nuclei caudati in dose of 10.0 nmol did not induce such symptoms. The enhanced slow-wave activity was recorded in caudate nuclei during hypokinesia and rigidity which demonstrated the formation of the generator of pathologically enhanced excitation (GPEE). The systemically cyclodol administration resulted in abolishment of rigidity and increase in locomotor activity. The conclusion is that bilateral intranigral DSIP injection caused acute parkinson syndrome in rats due to the formation of cholinergic GPEE in caudate nuclei. The hyperactive caudate nuclei act as the pathologic determinant which induces the parkinson syndrome.
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The protective effects of simultaneous and continuous administration of physostigmine and trihexyphenidyl against soman-induced toxicity were studied in guinea pigs. Not only did trihexyphenidyl reduce physostigmine-induced toxicity when it was administered continuously to the animals along with physostigmine, the combination afforded greater protection from soman lethality than did either agent administered alone. The combination pretreatment also gave better protection against soman-induced body weight loss and decreased water consumption and attenuated the down-regulation of cholinergic receptors which occurred when physostigmine alone was used. The onsets of other soman-induced toxicity signs were delayed significantly by the combination pretreatment regimen. These results suggest that simultaneous administration of the combination of physostigmine and trihexyphenidyl may be more useful than physostigmine alone as prophylaxis against soman poisoning.
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Drooling is the inability to retain saliva in the mouth and its progression to the digestive tract, being a common problem in pediatric patients with neurological disorders. Three different treatment options are available.
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High stereoselectivity was observed for the enantiomers of trihexyphenidyl and trihexyphenidyl methiodide at muscarinic M1-receptors in field-stimulated rabbit vas deferens and at M2 alpha- and M2 beta-receptors in guinea-pig atrium and ileum, respectively. Considerably higher affinities (up to 1700-fold) were found for the (R)-(-)-enantiomers. The stereochemical demands made by the muscarinic receptor subtypes were most stringent at the M1-receptors. The (R)-(-)-enantiomers were found to be potent M1-selective antagonists (pA2 = 10.1/10.6). They showed a 91- and 45-fold selectivity for M1- over M2 alpha-receptors, respectively.
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A 36 year old psychotic man receiving treatment with slow-release pipotiazine and trihexyphenidyl developed nine days after addition of droperidol signs suggestive of a malignant neuroleptic syndrome: altered general condition, diffuse hypertonia, akinesia, fever and vomiting. Results of biologic tests and a muscle biopsy were suggestive of a severe rhabdomyolysis. Cessation of neuroleptic therapy and the administrative of nifedipine brought a gradual return return to normal conditions, and progressively increasing doses of neuroleptic could be given without complications 12 days later. Onset of hyperthermia during neuroleptic treatment raises two questions: 1) is the etiology related to a malignant neuroleptic syndrome or acute catatonia, or a heat stroke? 2) to what extent are neuroleptics responsible for these disorders?
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