Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion in the review and quality, and extracted data. The area under the pain relief versus time curve was used to derive the proportion of participants prescribed etoricoxib or placebo with at least 50% pain relief over six hours, using validated equations. Relative risk (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) were calculated. Information on use of rescue medication was used to calculate the proportion of participants requiring rescue medication and the weighted mean of the median time to use. Information on adverse effects was also collected.
In both studies, etoricoxib was non-inferior to celecoxib for all three efficacy outcomes over 12 and 26 weeks; both were superior to placebo (P < 0.001) for all three outcomes in each study over 12 weeks. The safety and tolerability of etoricoxib 30 mg qd and celecoxib 200 mg qd were similar over 12 and 26 weeks.
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Roles of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme and intrinsic pathway of apoptosis have been explored for the chemopreventive effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on 9,10-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced lung cancer in rat model. 16 weeks after the administration of DMBA, morphological analysis revealed the occurrences of tumours and lesions, which were regressed considerably with the co-administration of indomethacin and etoricoxib, the two NSAIDs under investigation. DMBA group was marked by hyperplasia and dysplasia as observed by histological examination, and these features were corrected to a large extent by the two NSAIDs. Elevated levels of COX-2 were seen in the DMBA group, the enzyme responsible for prostaglandin synthesis during inflammation and cancer, whilst the expression of the constitutive isoform, COX-1, was equally expressed in all the groups. Apoptosis was quantified by studying the activities of apaf-1, caspase-9, and 3 by immunofluorescence and western blots. Their activities were found to diminish in the DMBA-treated animals as compared to the other groups. Fluorescent co-staining of the isolated broncho-alveolar lavage cells showed reduced number of apoptotic cells in the DMBA group, indicating decrease in apoptosis after carcinogen administration. The present results thus suggest that the mechanism of cancer chemoprevention of NSAIDs may include the suppression of COX-2 and the induction of apoptosis.
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Etoricoxib is a second-generation selective COX-2 inhibitor. There are a few researches investigating analgesic effect of Etoricoxib in dentistry.
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Patients > or = 18 years of age with onset of acute gout within 48 h associated with moderate, severe, or extreme pain involving less than four joints were eligible for inclusion in the primary studies, and were randomized to etoricoxib 120 mg once daily (N = 178) or indomethacin 50 mg three times daily (N = 161). The primary and secondary efficacy endpoints were analyzed using an analysis of covariance model to detect potential differential treatment responses across several subgroups: joint involvement (mono-articular vs. oligo-articular), baseline pain severity (moderate vs. severe), concomitant allopurinol and/or colchicine use (users vs. nonusers), age (< 45, 45-55, and > 55 years), gender, and race (white or other).
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Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) reduces the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which can have both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on allergic inflammation. Moreover, in vitro PGE2 has been shown to affect inflammation through the modulation of lymphocyte responses.
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Etoricoxib (Arcoxia) is a novel non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that selectively inhibits the inducible form of cyclo-oxygenase (COX), COX-2. Etoricoxib has a higher COX-1/COX-2 selectivity ratio than the other COX-2-selective NSAIDs as rofecoxib, valdecoxib or celecoxib. Tablets of 60, 90 and 120 mg are available. The recommended dosage of etoricoxib is 60 mg/day for osteoarthritis, 90 mg/day for rheumatoid arthritis and 120 mg/day for acute gouty arthritis. Etoricoxib's efficacy has been widely studied in comparative studies, showing the same efficacy as non-COX-2 selective NSAID, with fewer gastro-intestinal adverse effects.
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In a double-blind design, 89 adult patients scheduled for day-case ACL repair in general anaesthesia were randomly assigned into three groups: The COXIB group (n = 30) received either 40 mg parecoxib iv or 120 mg etoricoxib orally 1 h before surgery. The STEROID group (n = 30) received 8 mg dexamethasone iv, and the combination group (Group COMBI, n = 29) received both.
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A total of 1158 COX-2 inhibitor users were identified; 96 refused to participate and 129 were excluded. The mean (SD) age of the remaining 933 COX-2 inhibitor users was 69 (15) years with 528 women (56.6%) and 405 men (43.4%). Mean time of follow-up was 12.4 months. The annual incidence of clinical upper GI events in these patients taking COX-2 inhibitors was 4.6% (44 events/959 patient-years), with symptomatic ulcers in 3.6% and ulcer complications in 1.0%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that a history of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) (odds ratio [OR = 4.61; 95% CI, 1.86-11.40; P = 0.001), concomitant use of steroids (OR = 2.99; 95% CI, 1.39-6.46; P = 0.005), aspirin (OR = 13.47; 95% CI, 5.89-30.82; P < 0.001), and other NSAIDs (OR = 60.49; 95% CI, 11.93-306.64; P < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for clinical upper GI events in these patients taking COX-2 inhibitors. Age >60 years was not found to be a risk factor.
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This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over study. In each period, 14 healthy volunteers ranging in age from 21 to 35 years received oral digoxin 0.25 mg daily and were randomized to either etoricoxib 120 mg or matching placebo tablets once daily for 10 days. Trough digoxin plasma concentrations were analysed by linear regression to examine digoxin accumulation over time.
This double-blind study randomized OA patients to etoricoxib 90 mg, then to 60 mg once daily vs diclofenac 75 mg twice daily; RA patients were randomized to etoricoxib 90 mg once daily or diclofenac 75 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was non-inferiority of etoricoxib vs diclofenac for thrombotic CV events (95% CI upper bound of hazard ratio <1.30). Other safety and efficacy parameters were evaluated in cohorts of patients based on etoricoxib dose and disease.
Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of single dose, oral etoricoxib for acute postoperative pain in adults.
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This new combined modular therapy approach is able to induce major responses including resolution of skeletal lesions in patients with CRPC. Furthermore, the study may clinically support the above-mentioned hypothesis.
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The follow-up included 66 patients (34 women and 32 men) who took NSAIDs for emergent low back pain.
Solid dispersions of VLB and ETB were prepared with 1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% (w/w) concentrations of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in situ using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Enthalpy relaxation studies were carried out with isothermal storage periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, 16, and 24 hours at 40°C and 0% relative humidity (RH).
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Seventeen cases, 4 male and 13 female, were studied. None had previously presented any drug intolerance or allergy. Clinical manifestations were mainly maculopapular exanthema followed by urticaria-angioedema. A severe case of leukocytoclastic vasculitis was also observed. Responsible drugs were celecoxib (13 cases; 76%), rofecoxib (3 cases; 18%), and etoricoxib (1 case; 6%). All cases recovered with drug withdrawal. Causality was probable for all eruptions, except for the fixed drug eruption, for which causality was certain.
Three COX-2-specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), etoricoxib, parecoxib, and nimesulide are widely prescribed against inflammatory conditions. However, their long term administration leads to severe conditions of cardiovascular complications and gastric ulceration. In order to minimize these side effects, C-terminal half (C-lobe) of colostrum protein lactoferrin has been indicated to be useful if co-administered with NSAIDs. Lactoferrin is an 80kDa glycoprotein with two similar halves designated as N- and C-lobes. Since NSAID-binding site is located in the C-terminal half of lactoferrin, C-lobe was prepared from lactoferrin by limited proteolysis using proteinase K. The incubation of lactoferrin with serine proteases for extended periods showed that N-lobe was completely digested but C-lobe was resistant for more than 72h indicating its long half life in the animal gut. The solution studies have shown that COX-2-specific NSAIDs bind to C-lobe with binding constants ranging from 10(-4) to 10(-5)M showing significant affinities for sequestering these compounds. In order to understand the mode of binding and sequestering properties, the complexes of C-lobe with all these three compounds, etoricoxib, parecoxib, and nimesulide were prepared and the structures of their complexes with C-lobe were determined at 2.2, 2.9, and 2.7A resolutions, respectively. The analysis of the structures of complexes of C-lobe with NSAIDs clearly show that all the three compounds bind firmly at the same ligand-binding site in the C-lobe revealing the details of the interactions between C-lobe and NSAIDs. The mode of binding of COX-2-specific NSAIDs to C-lobe is similar to that of the binding of COX-2 non-specific NSAIDs to C-lobe.
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The NSAID etoricoxib is a selective inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), approved for treatment of patients with chronic arthropathies and musculoskeletal and dental pain. The rate of absorption of etoricoxib is moderate when given orally (the maximum plasma drug concentration occurs after approximately 1 hour), and the extent of absorption is similar with oral and intravenous doses. Etoricoxib is extensively protein bound, primarily to plasma albumin, and has an apparent volume of distribution of 120 L in humans. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of etoricoxib increases in proportion to increasing oral doses between 5 and 120 mg. The elimination half-life of approximately 20 hours in healthy subjects enables once-daily dosing. Etoricoxib is eliminated following biotransformation to carboxylic acid and glucuronide metabolites that are excreted in urine and faeces, with little of the drug (<1%) being eliminated unchanged in the urine. Etoricoxib is metabolized primarily by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 isoenzyme. Plasma concentrations (AUC) of etoricoxib appear not to be different in patients with chronic renal insufficiency compared with individuals who have normal renal function. Compared with healthy subjects, it has been reported that the AUC is increased by approximately 40% in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. No inhibitory effects on CYP2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 or 3A4 are expected to occur with etoricoxib. Coadministration of etoricoxib with other drugs has been examined only to a limited extent, thus further assessment is necessary. Etoricoxib has been assessed for the management of several specific disease states, including pain, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis, and has shown similar efficacy in comparison with traditional NSAIDs (including naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen) in these conditions. Etoricoxib has demonstrated a significant reduction in gastrointestinal toxicity compared with many traditional NSAIDs. The renal adverse effects of etoricoxib appear to be similar to those of other NSAIDs, and the cardiovascular adverse effects of this selective COX-2 inhibitor require further clinical scrutiny. Further study is necessary to delineate the relevance of the pharmacokinetic disposition in terms of the clinical benefits and risks of etoricoxib compared with other options in the clinical arsenal.
Drug combinations have the potential advantage of greater analgesia over monotherapy. The present study was aimed to assess any possible interaction (additive or potentiation) in the antinociceptive effects of etoricoxib; a novel cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, and tramadol; a typical opioid agonist when administered in combination against mechanical hyperalgesia induced by spinal cord injury in rats. The nature of interaction was analyzed using surface of synergistic interaction (SSI) analysis and an isobolographic analysis. Etoricoxib or tramadol when administered alone to rats, exhibited different antihyperalgesic potencies (ED50 etoricoxib: 0.58+/-0.19 mg/kg, po; ED50 tramadol: 9.85+/-0.57 mg/kg, po). However, both the drugs were found to be long acting against this model of hyperalgesia. Further, etoricoxib and tramadol were co-administered in fixed ratios of ED50 fractions. One combination (0.29/4.79 mg/kg, po: etoricoxib/tramadol) exhibited additivity and other three combinations (0.15/2.39, 0.08/1.19, and 0.04/0.59 mg/kg, po: etoricoxib/tramadol) resulted in potentiation when analyzed by SSI. The SSI was calculated from the total antihyperalgesic effect produced by the combination after the subtraction of the antihyperalgesic effect produced by each of the individual drug. In the isobolographic analysis, the experimental ED50 was found to be far below the line of additivity also indicating a significant (P < 0.05) synergistic antihyperalgesic effect when etoricoxib and tramadol was co-administered to rats. The synergistic antihyperalgesic effect of etoricoxib and tramadol combination suggests that these combinations may have clinical utility in mechanical hyperalgesia associated with spinal injury.
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by joint pain and progressive loss of articular cartilage. Entada pursaetha has been traditionally used in the treatment of inflammatory disease, liver ailment, etc. In this study we investigated suppressive effect of ethanolic extract of E. pursaetha (EPE) on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis pain and disease progression by histopathological changes in joints in a rat model.
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The cost-effectiveness of etoricoxib versus nsNSAIDs was evaluated from the UK National Health Service (NHS) and society perspective with a decision-analytic model. Patients stayed on initial therapy throughout 52 weeks unless they experienced an adverse event (AE) or lacked efficacy, in which case they switched to another nsNSAID or a tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist. Efficacy data were obtained from a 1-year etoricoxib clinical trial in AS. Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) data were translated into Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) weights using a published data on the relation between BASFI and Short-form (SF) 36 Quality of life scores, as well as the relation between SF-36 and utility. Safety data were based on meta-analyses of etoricoxib trials. Information on treatment pathways, resource consumption, and absenteeism from work was obtained from literature and experts. Model outcomes included QALYs, perforations, ulcers, or bleeds, cardiovascular events, and costs.
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COX2, HA and CD44 were detected immunohistochemically in >90% of human oesophageal tumour samples. Under basal conditions, OSC1 and OSC2 cells express HAS2 and HAS3, COX2 and Galpha(s)-coupled EP(2) and EP(4) PG receptors. Neither stimulation with the PGI(2) analogue, iloprost, addition of exogenous PGE(2) nor forskolin induced HAS1 or HAS2 mRNA expression in OSC1 and OSC2 cells. Furthermore, in HeLa cells after induction of COX2 by tumour necrosis factor alpha and subsequent PGE(2) release, inhibition of COX2 by etoricoxib did not affect HAS expression or HA secretion.