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The blood pressure response after ethanol administration was studied in relation to blood acetaldehyde levels, aldehyde-dehydrogenase (ALDH)--and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activities in rats pretreated with the ethanol-sensitizing compounds disulfiram, cyanamide and coprine and the DBH-inhibitor FLA-57. Disulfiram, cyanamide and coprine, but not FLA-57, inhibited the low-Km ALDH in the liver and caused an increased acetaldehyde level in blood. Disulfiram and FLA-57, but not cyanamide and coprine, decreased the DBH-activity in the heart and the levels of norepinephrine in the heart and the brain. In disulfiram-treated rats with a low DBH-activity, a fall in blood pressure was observed at acetaldehyde levels being slightly higher than those found in control rats. In disulfiram-treated rats with a DBH-activity close to control activity and in rats pretreated with cyanamide or coprine, a fall in blood pressure were observed in rats pretreated with FLA-57. In rats pretreated with coprine + FLA-57, the fall in blood pressure was similar, or even lower, than in rats pretreated with coprine alone. The results suggest that acetaldehyde is the main determinant of the hypotension elicited by ethanol in rats pretreated with ALDH-inhibitors, and that the role of DBH in the disulfiram-ethanol reaction has been over-estimated in previous studies.
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The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate possible involvement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in modifying the toxic potential of 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate (HEMA). Primary cultures of CYP expressing rat alveolar type 2 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of HEMA. Nuclear translocation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) after HEMA exposure (100 μM) was demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining. Using reverse transcriptase PCR, increased mRNA level of AhR-regulated genes encoding enzymes associated with detoxification of xenobiotics were found. Exposure to 1 mM HEMA rapidly (6 h) resulted in cells with an apoptotic like morphology as suggested by marked nuclear condensation. Cotreatment of the HEMA exposed cells with a CYP inhibitor (disulfiram) or an antioxidant (vitamin C) effectively rescued the cells from this fate. Despite this effect of vitamin C, no increased level of reactive oxygen species was observed in the HEMA exposed cells. Our results suggest that HEMA activates AhR regulated gene transcription and that CYP is involved in the formation of a highly reactive HEMA metabolite.
Naltrexone, a broad opioid-receptor antagonist, was the first medication since disulfiram to be approved by the United States of America Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of alcohol dependence. In the initial clinical trials in the early 1990s, oral naltrexone, 50 mg, was shown to significantly reduce the risk of relapsing to heavy drinking compared to placebo. These early trials were followed by other trials throughout the world such that by 2010 about 4,000 individuals had been studied. Meta-analyses of these trials revealed that oral naltrexone is effective in reducing relapse to heavy drinking but less effective in enhancing abstinence. The effect size is modest, in the .15 to .2 range, which has impacted the adoption of naltrexone use by clinicians. Intramuscular versions of naltrexone active for one month have also shown efficacy. The tolerability of naltrexone is reasonable with the most common side-effect being nausea. Hepatotoxicity with naltrexone has not emerged as a clinical problem at the standard 50 mg dose though at higher doses hepatoxicity is of concern. The length of treatment with naltrexone has not been well studied though many clinicians recommend one year of treatment. Efforts are underway to identify predictors of naltrexone response but, to date, no predictor has achieved clinical utility. It is anticipated that the role of naltrexone and other opioid antagonists in the treatment of alcohol dependence will continue to be refined and that this class of medications will come to be seen as an important option in the clinical care of the patient with alcohol dependence.
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Short exposure (1-2 h) of cultured cells, derived from a transplantable murine mammary carcinoma, to sodium arsenite, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCP) or disulfiram, induced resistance to a subsequent heat treatment, similar to heat-induced thermotolerance. Optimum resistance to a test heat treatment of 45 min at 45 degrees C after sodium arsenite exposure was obtained at a concentration of 300 microM, after DNP exposure at 3mM, after CCP at 300 microM and after disulfiram exposure in the range 1-30 microM. Exposure of cells to CCP, sodium arsenite or disulfiram led to enhanced synthesis of some proteins with the same molecular weight as 'heat shock' proteins. The pattern of enhanced synthesis of these proteins was agent specific. We could not detect significantly enhanced synthesis of the proteins after DNP using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These results suggest that enhanced stress protein synthesis is not a prerequisite for the development of thermal resistance.
Eye growth is visually regulated via messengers that are released from the retina. The retina involves a yet unknown algorithm to analyse the projected image so that the appropriate growth rates for the back of the eye are ensured. One biochemical candidate that could act as a growth controller, is retinoic acid (RA). Previous work (Seko, Shimokawa and Tokoro, 1996; Mertz et al., 1999) has shown that retinal and choroidal RA levels are indeed predictably changed by visual conditions that cause myopia or hyperopia, respectively. We have studied in which fundal tissues aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (AHD2) and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (RALDH2), enzymes involved in RA synthesis, are expressed and at which levels the effects of vision on RA levels may be controlled. Using Northern blot analysis, we have found that the retinal mRNA level of the AHD2 is up-regulated after 3 days of treatment with negative lenses (negative lenses place the image behind the retina). The abundance of the retinal mRNA of a RA receptor, RAR-beta, was up-regulated already after 6 hr of treatment with positive lenses (positive lenses place the image in front of the retina). The up-regulation persisted for at least 1 week. Finally, we have studied the effects of an inhibitor of RA synthesis, disulfiram, on the visual control of eye growth. We found inhibition of myopia as induced by frosted goggles ('deprivation myopia') but no significant inhibitory effects on refractive errors induced by +7D or -7D lenses. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that RA may play a role in the visual control of eye growth. The RA system differs from a number of other candidates (dopamine, cholinergic agents, opiates) in that it distinguishes between positive and negative defocus, similar to the immediate early gene ZENK (Stell et al., 1999). The exact time kinetics of the changes have still to be worked out since it is possible that the changes in RA relate to already occurring changes in growth rather than to initial steps of the signaling cascade.
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Five hundred and sixty-nine alcoholics were included in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized multicenter study of the effects of Acamprosate (calcium acetylhomotaurinate (CA), 1.3 g/day) on indicators of alcoholic relapse after withdrawal. One hundred and eighty-one patients in the CA group versus 175 in the placebo group completed the three-month study. The major efficacy criterion was plasma gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), as an indicator of recent alcohol ingestion. This analysis was completed by criteria concordance analysis on a number of indicators of alcohol intake. Patients in both groups were similar initially. After 3 months of treatment, the patients in the CA group had significantly lower GGT (1.4 +/- 1.56 versus 2.0 +/- 3.19 times normal, P = 0.016). All significant differences (P less than 0.05) or trends (0.10 greater than P greater than 0.05) were in favor of a superior effect of CA over placebo. The major side-effect of CA was diarrhea (present in 13% of CA patients versus 7% of placebo, P = 0.04). CA proved superior to placebo on the evolution of markers of alcohol ingestion at three months, in this large-scale multicenter study. It could be a new modality in the drug therapy of alcoholism, not involving an antabuse effect, an antidepressant action, or conditioning.
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Previous metabolic studies in rats have suggested in vivo formation of the acrolein-glutathione (acrolein-GSH) adduct following administration of the highly reactive alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein. Early studies by several investigators demonstrated that similar compounds such as alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde-cysteine adducts have toxic (carcinostatic) activity against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells implanted in mice. The current studies investigated the in vivo toxicity associated with the acrolein-GSH adduct in the male Sprague-Dawley rat. The 1:1 acrolein-GSH adduct was synthesized and characterized by physical-chemical methods. Rats given the acrolein-GSH adduct intravenously at 0.5 or 1 mmol/kg developed nephrotoxicity characterized by glucosuria, proteinuria, elevation in serum urea nitrogen, and gross and histologic changes of the kidney. The toxicity was not affected by pretreatment of rats with pyrazole, an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor; disulfiram, an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenases; or probenecid, a renal organic anion transport inhibitor. Administration of a similar but nonaldehydic glutathione conjugate, S-n-propylglutathione, did not result in nephrotoxicity in the rat. The nephrotoxicity induced by the acrolein-GSH adduct was inhibited by acivicin, a gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase inhibitor. These results indicate that the acrolein-GSH adduct requires processing through the first step of the renal mercapturic acid synthesis pathway to be activated to a toxic species.
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Much of alcohol's toxicity is due to its product, acetaldehyde. The role of acetaldehyde derived from endogenous sources was assessed in alcoholic patients administered disulfiram, an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase.
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The rate limiting step in the alpha-amidation of bioactive peptides is catalyzed by peptidylglycine-alpha-hydroxylating mono-oxygenase (PHM; EC 188.8.131.52). Sustained treatment with disulfiram (Antabuse), the disulfide dimer of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), inhibits PHM in vivo, causing tissue levels of alpha-amidated peptides to decrease. As a compensatory response, PHM protein is modified in such a way that its activity is increased when assayed under optimal conditions in a test tube. Because disulfiram is rapidly reduced to DDC in vivo, this investigation sought to determine if metabolic transformation plays a role in the effects of disulfiram treatment on alpha-amidation. While disulfiram treatment reduced concentrations of alpha-amidated peptides in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe and brain, DDC treatment did not, even at comparatively high doses. Both treatments increased the activity of PHM extracted from the neurointermediate pituitary and assayed under optimal copper conditions in vitro. Only disulfiram treatment elicited an increase in PHM activity extracted from cardiac atrium. It is concluded that the activity of PHM is regulated in a tissue specific fashion and that not all of the actions of disulfiram require its metabolism to DDC.
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The purpose of this paper was to study the relationship between different neurotransmitter systems and seizure susceptibility in Mongolian gerbils with genetically determined epilepsy. In these animals, generalized tonic-clonic seizures were induced by stimulation with a blast of compressed air. A variety of drugs that specifically manipulate inhibitory or excitatory neurotransmitter systems proved capable of dose dependently blocking these seizures, i.e., the anticholinergic drug biperiden (ED50 12 mg/kg i.p.), the excitatory amino acid antagonist (+/-)-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (120 mg/kg), the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists muscimol (0.66 mg/kg), 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c) pyridine-3-ol (1.3 mg/kg), progabide (50 mg/kg) and its acidic metabolite SL 75102 (45 mg/kg), the GABA aminotransferase inhibitors aminooxyacetic acid (0.9 mg/kg), gamma-acetylenic GABA (2.1 mg/kg) and ethanolamine-O-sulfate (1000 mg/kg), the GABA uptake inhibitor (-)-nipecotic acid ethyl ester (21 mg/kg), the dopamine agonist apomorphine (approximately 5 mg/kg), the dopamine precursor 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (34 mg/kg), and the alpha-adrenoceptor agonists clonidine (0.38 mg/kg) and xylazine (approximately 10 mg/kg). The anticonvulsant effect of 3,4-dihydroxyl-L-phenylalanine was not significantly affected by pretreatment with the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitors disulfiram and diethyldithiocarbamate, thus strongly indicating that 3,4-dihydroxyl-L-phenylalanine was acting through increase in dopamine rather than noradrenaline levels in the brain. The (+)-isomer of nipecotic acid ethyl ester, the glycineamide derivative milacemide, the indirect 5-hydroxytryptamine agonist fenfluramine and the 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist ketanserin exerted no anticonvulsant action. The 5-hydroxytryptamine precursor L-5-hydroxytryptophan and the dopamine agonist lisuride were only weakly active but exerted pronounced side effects in the animals. Weak anticonvulsant effects were also determined for atropine, the noradrenaline precursor DL-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine and the excitatory amino acid antagonist (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid. Comparison of anticonvulsant potencies of the various drugs in gerbils with potencies reported in other genetic animal models of epilepsy, such as audiogenic seizure-susceptible mice, indicated that drugs that increase GABA and dopamine levels in the brain are strikingly more effective in gerbils than in other species in blocking generalized seizures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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We provisionally suggest that elevation of some kynurenine metabolites may be an additional mechanism of the alcohol-aversive and anticancer effects of disulfiram.
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A 54-year-old woman with recurrent adenocarcinoma of the uterus was treated with new third-generation cephalosporin, cefmenoxime, for a urinary tract infection. She received an alcohol-containing tylenol elixir while receiving the drug on two occasions. A disulfiram-like reaction was noticed each time. Such reactions have been described in patients receiving certain drugs such as 5-nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans, sulfonylureas and certain newer cephalosporins with a methyltetrazolethiol side chain. This is the first report of a disulfiram-like reaction with cefmenoxime. The mechanism, causes, and significance of disulfiram-like reactions are discussed.
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There was a tendency for lower serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in the disulfiram and cimetidine groups compared with the R-(+)-pulegone group. The differences were significant for both the cimetidine and the combined disulfram and cimetidine groups compared with the R-(+)-pulegone group. Pretreatment with the combination of disulfiram and cimetidine most effectively mitigated R-(+)-pulegone-induced hepatotoxicity.
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The mitochondrial isozyme of horse liver aldehyde dehydrogenase was labeled with brominated [5-(3-acetylpyridinio)pentyl]diphosphoadenosine. Specific labeling of a coenzyme binding region was proven by an enzymatic activity of the isozyme with the nonbrominated coenzyme derivative, optical properties of the complex, stoichiometry of incorporation, and protection against inactivation. A cysteine residue was selectively modified by the brominated coenzyme analogue and was identified in a 35-residue tryptic peptide. This cysteine residue corresponds to Cys-302 of the cytoplasmic isozyme and has earlier been implicated in disulfiram binding, confirming a position close to the active site. In contrast, the butyl homologue of the coenzyme analogue labels another residue of the mitochondrial isozyme. Thus, in the same isozyme, two residues are selectively reactive. They are concluded to be close together in the tertiary structure and to be close enough to the coenzyme binding site to be differentially labeled by coenzyme analogues differing only by a single methylene group.
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Disulfiram was highly toxic to BC cell lines in vitro in a copper (Cu)-dependent manner. In Cu-containing medium (1 μM), the IC(50) concentrations of DS in BC cell lines were 200-500 nM. Disulfiram/copper significantly enhanced (3.7-15.5-fold) cytotoxicity of paclitaxel (PAC). Combination index isobologram analysis demonstrated a synergistic effect between DS/Cu and PAC. The increased Bax and Bcl2 protein expression ratio indicated that intrinsic apoptotic pathway may be involved in DS/Cu-induced apoptosis. Clonogenic assay showed DS/Cu-inhibited clonogenicity of BC cells. Mammosphere formation and the ALDH1(+VE) and CD24(Low)/CD44(High) CSCs population in mammospheres were significantly inhibited by exposure to DS/Cu for 24 h. Disulfiram/copper induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activated its downstream apoptosis-related cJun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK pathways. Meanwhile, the constitutive NFκB activity in BC cell lines was inhibited by DS/Cu.
Comorbity is very high in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. PTSD is very often complicated with depressive disorder, substance abuse, other anxiety disorders, personality disorders, psychotic features, etc. There have been few pharmacotherapy studies in this complicated field. In the past few years the literature on pharmacotherapy treatment for PTSD and comorbidity has arisen. From empirical evidence (level A) exist three sertraline studies in PTSD comorbid with: 1) anxiety, 2) depression, and 3) anxiety and depression, and one risperidone study in PTSD comorbid with psychotic symptoms. From empirical evidence (level B) exist two disulfiram, naltrexone, and their combination studies in patients with PTSD comorbid with alcohol dependence and one paroxetine or bupropion versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus community mental health referral study in PTSD women outpatients with major depressive disorder. The results from our label trials in the Croatian war veterans with chronic PTSD comorbid with psychotic features treated with novel antipsychotics (olanzapine, risperidone, or quetiapine) are promising. In the future more rigorously designed, comparative studies are needed to determine the usefulness, efficacy, tolerability, and safety of particular psychopharmaceutical drugs in the treatment of this therapeutically and functionally challenging disorder, especially the trials from level A.
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Disulfiram is frequently used in the treatment of alcoholism. In this study, we found that CuCl(2) (1-10 microM), but not other metal ions (Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Pb(2+)), markedly potentiated disulfiram-induced cytotoxicity by 440-fold in primary astrocytes. Thus, the molecular mechanisms of the cytotoxic effects induced by the disulfiram-Cu(2+) complex were explored. The changes in morphology (nuclear condensation and apoptotic body formation) and hypodiploidy of DNA suggested that the disulfiram-Cu(2+) complex induced an apoptotic process. Our studies of the death-signaling pathway reveal that decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased free radical production, and depletion of non-protein-thiols (glutathione) were involved. The disulfiram-Cu(2+) complex activated c-Jun-amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 followed by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase degradation in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, the cellular Cu content was markedly increased and the copper chelator bathocuproine disulfonate abolished all of these cellular events, suggesting that Cu(2+) is essential for death signaling. The antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and vitamin C also inhibited the cytotoxic effect. Thus, we conclude that the disulfiram-Cu(2+) complex induces apoptosis and perhaps necrosis at a late stage mediated by oxidative stress followed by sequential activation of JNK, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase degradation. These findings imply that the axonal degeneration and neurotoxicity observed after the chronic administration of disulfiram are perhaps, at least in part, due to the cytotoxic effect of the disulfiram-Cu(2+) complex formed endogenously.
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We studied the effect of prior narcotic addiction on response to treatment of alcoholism. Patients in the Elmhurst Alcoholism Treatment Program are offered medical care, counseling, disulfiram, and close affiliation with Alcoholics Anonymous. We compared 85 alcoholics who had a history of narcotic use with a control group of 85 alcoholics matched for age, sex, and race who had never used narcotics. Among controls, 30 (35%) became abstinent from alcohol for at least half the time that they were known to us. Of the former narcotic users, only 8 (9%) became abstinent for at least half the time they were known to us. Former narcotic users did poorly in alcoholism treatment, whether or not they had ever been treated with methadone maintenance. Alcohol use, often heavy, began before heroin use in at least half the narcotic group. We conclude that a history of narcotic use reduces markedly the chance of success in conventional alcoholism treatment, and that alcoholism and narcotic addiction develop independently.
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To provide an overview of the pharmacological options for the treatment of heroin- and cocaine-dependent patients based on known biochemical pathways to addiction and the chronic disease model as a starting point for treatment planning.
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Oxidants targeted toward inactivation of the nucleocapsid zinc finger protein are under development as antiviral agents, especially for use against human immunodeficiency virus. In the present study, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry is used to follow in situ the progress of the reactions of 2,2'-dithiodipyridine and disulfiram with recombinant nucleocapsid protein p7 (Ncp7) from human immunodeficiency virus-1 at pH 7.4. Both reagents react with the two zinc fingers in the protein, resulting in the ejection of two zinc ions and the formation of oxidized apo-Ncp7 with three intramolecular disulfide bonds. The ejection of zinc by 2,2'-dithiodipyridine occurs in two steps. Alkylation of unreacted cysteine residues with N-ethylmaleimide after a 2-min reaction with 2,2'-dithiodipyridine reveals that the carboxyl-terminal zinc finger is disrupted first. Cys-49, Cys-36, and, to a lesser extent, Cys-39 are all shown to be target residues for initial electrophilic attack. In the reaction of disulfiram with Ncp7, ejection of the two zinc ions also occurs in two steps; however, the fully oxidized apo-Ncp7 is formed more rapidly. Thus, after a 40-min reaction, 45% of native Ncp7 is oxidized by 2,2'-dithiodipyridine, whereas 75% is oxidized by disulfiram.
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we searched in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and MEDLINE databases to identify relevant English language publications focused on long-term therapy of ALD.
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Apoptosis has a central role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, one of which is cancer. One of the most important strategies to regulate apoptosis is via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. It has been shown that inhibition of proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity is a strong apoptosis-inducing stimulus and that actively proliferating cancer cells are more sensitive to proteasome inhibitors than normal or untransformed cells. Dithioscarbamates are a class of metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. We reported previously that certain members of dithiocarbamates, such as pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), diethyldithiocarbamate and disulfiram, are able to bind with tumor cellular copper, forming an active complex with proteasome-inhibitory, apoptosis-inducing and anti-cancer activities. In the current study, we synthesized eight PDTC analogues with substitutions made to the pyrrolidine ring and studied their structure-activity relationships. We found that substitution of the pyrrolidine ring with piperidine had almost no effect on their proteasome-inhibitory and anti-proliferative potencies in human breast cancer cells. However, after the pyrrolidine ring was substituted with morpholine, the activity of the mixtures slightly decreased but was completely lost when piperazine with the attached ethyl group was used for the substitution. This structure-activity relationship was confirmed by the results generated with the corresponding copper complexes. Our data further support the novel concept of using accumulated copper in human cancer cells as a selective approach for chemotherapy.
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Animal studies demonstrate that diethyldithiocarbamate is an effective antidote in acute nickel carbonyl poisoning when it is administered parenterally soon after exposure. However, as no adequately controlled clinical studies have been performed, further clinical data are required before diethyldithiocarbamate can be recommended routinely in acute nickel carbonyl poisoning. If diethyldithiocarbamate is to be employed, it should be administered parenterally soon after exposure as delay in administration may increase nickel carbonyl toxicity. There are currently insufficient data to recommend disulfiram as an alternative to diethyldithiocarbamate even when diethyldithiocarbamate is not available.
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In viral proteins, labile Zn-sites, where Zn(2+) is crucial for maintaining the native protein structure but the Zn-bound cysteines are reactive, are promising drug targets. Here, we aim to (i) identify labile Zn-sites in viral proteins using guidelines established from our previous work and (ii) assess if clinically safe Zn-ejecting agents could eject Zn(2+) from the predicted target site and thus inhibit viral replication. As proof-of-concept, we identified a labile Zn-site in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A protein and showed that the antialcoholism drug, disulfiram, could inhibit HCV replication to a similar extent as the clinically used antiviral agent, ribavirin. The discovery of a novel viral target and a new role for disulfiram in inhibiting HCV replication will enhance the therapeutic armamentarium against HCV. The strategy presented can also be applied to identify labile sites in other bacterial or viral proteins that can be targeted by disulfiram or other clinically safe Zn-ejectors.
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Pathological gambling and comorbid alcohol dependence often occur in combination. Disulfiram is one of the proven drugs for alcohol dependence. In addition to its inhibiting acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, disulfiram inhibits dopamine beta-hydroxylase and may thereby increase dopamine and decrease norepinephrine cerebral concentrations. Because there may be common neurochemical substrates and neuronal circuits for pathological gambling and addiction, we wished to explore the effect of disulfiram in gambling.
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Tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-(DA)-beta-hydroxylase acitvities in guinea pig brain and heart were determined at various time after disulfiram (DS) and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) injections. In the same tissues DS and DDC levels were measured. The linear relationship between the above enzymes activities and the levels of DDC in brain and heart has been found. The inactivation of the both enzymes is dependent on DDC content in tissues.
Twenty-one patients within 30% of ideal body weight, who provided institutional review board-approved informed consent and were randomized to receive disulfiram (500 mg oral, n = 11) or nothing (control, n = 10) the night before surgery, were evaluated. All patients received sevoflurane (2.7% end-tidal, 1.3 MAC) in oxygen for 3 h after propofol induction. Thereafter, sevoflurane was discontinued, and anesthesia was maintained with propofol, fentanyl, and nitrous oxide. Blood sevoflurane concentrations during anesthesia and for 8 h thereafter were measured by gas chromatography. Plasma and urine fluoride and total (unconjugated plus glucuronidated) HFIP concentrations were measured by an ion-selective electrode and by gas chromatography, respectively, during anesthesia and for 96 h postoperatively.