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For patients completing 2 years of therapy, HbA1c reductions were -0.6% with glimepiride versus -0.9% with liraglutide 1.2 mg (difference: -0.37, 95% CI: -0.71 to -0.02; p = 0.0376) and -1.1% with liraglutide 1.8 mg (difference: -0.55, 95% CI: -0.88 to -0.21; p = 0.0016). In the ITT population, HbA1c reductions were -0.3% with glimepiride versus -0.6% with liraglutide 1.2 mg (difference: -0.31, 95% CI: -0.54 to -0.08; p = 0.0076) and -0.9% with liraglutide 1.8 mg (difference: -0.60, 95% CI: -0.83 to -0.38; p < 0.0001). For both ITT and completer populations, liraglutide was more effective in reducing HbA1c, FPG and weight. Over 2 years, rates of minor hypoglycaemia [self-treated plasma glucose <3.1 mmol/l (<56 mg/dl)] were significantly lower with liraglutide 1.2 mg and 1.8 mg compared with glimepiride (p < 0.0001).
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We investigated the clinical and metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients who were inadequately controlled on sulfonylurea (SU) before initiating insulin therapy to characterise patients who are likely to achieve target glycaemic control with insulin analogues.
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The aim of this study was to examine the influence of weight change experiences over time on motivation to perform diabetes self-care behaviors using data from a study of canagliflozin (an agent that inhibits sodium glucose co-transporter 2) versus glimepiride in dual therapy with metformin and background diet/exercise.
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High glucose concentrations (over 27.8 mM) increased endothelial-neutrophil cell adhesion and expression of endothelial adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), P-selectin, E-selectin). These events were protein kinase C (PKC) dependent, because PKC inhibitors, but not other intracellular second messenger inhibitors, significantly blocked them. Among antidiabetic medicines, a sulfonylurea, gliclazide (but not glibenclamide or glimepiride), and an aldose reductase inhibitor, epalrestat, significantly inhibited these events; however, a new K(ATP)-channel blocker, netegulinide, a biguanide, metformine, or an insulin sensitizer, troglitazone, did not.
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RAW264.7, HEK293 and BHK-21 cells were used for in vitro studies. To investigate RCT in vivo, 3H-cholesterol-labeled and acetyl LDL-loaded RAW264.7 cells were injected into mice.
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The sulphonylurea dose-effect curve may be bell-shaped, perhaps due to down regulation of sulphonylurea receptors during chronic exposure. Alternatively, the finding could be a rebound phenomenon, secondary to preceding hypoglycaemia. The optimum dose for NANSY was found to be 1 mg glimepiride.
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Pioglitazone and metformin are insulin sensitisers used for the treatment of T2DM. The effects of pioglitazone and metformin on endothelial function, assessed by FMD, in T2DM patients treated with sulfonylureas were compared. Patients were randomised to receive pioglitazone (n = 15) 30 mg once daily or metformin (n = 16) 850 mg twice daily for six months. Pioglitazone significantly decreased fasting insulin, HbA(1C) and HOMA-IR (p < 0.05 for all) and increased FMD (p = 0.002). Metformin induced a significant decrease in HbA(1C) (p = 0.02) and only a trend for increase in FMD (p = 0.08). The greater improvement in FMD with pioglitazone, compared with metformin, did not reach significance (p = 0.11). Treatment-induced changes in FMD were not associated with the effects of the two insulin sensitisers on glycaemic control or insulin resistance. The beneficial effects of pioglitazone and metformin on endothelial function in T2DM patients did not differ greatly. Larger studies are needed to explore whether a potentially greater benefit with pioglitazone may exist.
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Non-inferiority was demonstrated for both co-primary endpoints: the upper limits of 95% CIs for differences (combination-reference) were less than the prespecified margins of 3.3 mmol/mol (0.3%) for change from baseline in HbA1c [difference 0.1 mmol/mol (95% CI -1.6, 1.9); 0.01% (95% CI -0.15, 0.17)] and 6% for percentage change from baseline in LDL cholesterol [difference 0.87% (95% CI -2.47, 4.21)]. Similar proportions of participants on combination and reference had treatment-emergent adverse events (64 vs. 61%). More participants on combination had hypoglycaemia (21 vs. 13%); most events were considered by the treating physician to be unrelated to study drug.
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To compare the effects of glimepiride and metformin on vascular reactivity, hemostatic factors and glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes.
The median follow-up was 5.6 years. Median glycated hemoglobin levels were 8.4% in the standard-therapy group and 6.9% in the intensive-therapy group. The primary outcome occurred in 264 patients in the standard-therapy group and 235 patients in the intensive-therapy group (hazard ratio in the intensive-therapy group, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.05; P=0.14). There was no significant difference between the two groups in any component of the primary outcome or in the rate of death from any cause (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.42; P=0.62). No differences between the two groups were observed for microvascular complications. The rates of adverse events, predominantly hypoglycemia, were 17.6% in the standard-therapy group and 24.1% in the intensive-therapy group.
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The objective of the present work was to investigate the potential for pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between glimepiride (GMP) and piperazine dithioctate (PDT) in rats to support the development of an orally combined product of the two drugs. An LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method was developed for simultaneous quantification of GMP and thioctic acid (TA) in rat plasma. The accuracy, precision, linearity, selectivity, and recovery were all within an acceptable range. The oral plasma exposure of the GMP solution was more than 14-times greater than that of the GMP suspension at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, suggesting a dissolution-limited absorption of the GMP suspension. Oral co-administration of PDT (72 mg/kg) with GMP suspension (0.5 mg/kg) reduced the plasma GMP exposure by approximately 80% without a significant change in t1/2 and tmax. Oral co-administration of PDT with GMP solution had no significant effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of GMP. PDT lowered the pH (from ca. 7 to 5.6) and the dissolved GMP concentration in the GMP suspension. It was also shown that GMP was more soluble at pH 7 than at 5.7 in an aqueous solution, and the oral plasma exposure of a GMP suspension at pH 7.0 was substantially higher than that of a suspension at pH 5.7. These results suggest that the pH-dependent solubility of GMP was likely responsible for PDT's effect on the oral absorption of GMP. In conclusion, the current work suggests a possibility of drug-drug interaction between GMP and PDT upon oral co-administration.
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In this randomised, two-phase cross-over study, 10 healthy volunteers were treated for 5 days with 600 mg rifampicin or placebo once daily. On day 6, a single oral dose of 1 mg glimepiride was administered. Plasma glimepiride and blood glucose concentrations were measured up to 12 h.
A 53-year-old African-American man (height, 185.4 cm; weight, 108.6 kg) with type 2 diabetes mellitus arrived at the emergency department (ED) with new-onset intolerable abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant and left upper quadrant that had appeared suddenly and lasted two to three hours. He had nausea but no vomiting, with tenderness in the epigastric region. In the ED, his serum amylase concentration was found to be extremely elevated (3,963 units/L), as was his serum lipase concentration (>15,000 units/L). In addition to type 2 diabetes, his medical history included hyperlipidemia, hypertension, peripheral neuropathy, erectile dysfunction, and obesity. His home medications included aspirin 81 mg orally daily, metformin 1000 mg orally every morning and 1500 mg every evening, simvastatin 80 mg orally daily at bedtime, tadalafil 20 mg orally as needed, glimepiride 4 mg orally twice daily, and liraglutide 1.2 mg subcutaneously daily. Two months before his arrival to the ED, the patient's dosage of liraglutide was increased from 0.6 to 1.2 mg subcutaneously daily. Radiographic data were obtained, and acute pancreatitis was diagnosed. Liraglutide was discontinued indefinitely after ruling out elevated triglycerides as the cause of pancreatitis. The patient was initiated on standard therapy for acute pancreatitis and discharged eight days later with complete resolution of symptoms and normal laboratory test values.
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Estimation of kidney function (eGFR) is essential in monitoring of patients with kidney disease. Estimates of kidney function based on serum creatinine are derived from cross-sectional studies. If body weight (BW) changes, this might affect creatinine and eGFR. The Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation includes creatinine and BW, whereas the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations only include creatinine.
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Absolute change from baseline to final visit in mean posterior-wall CIMT of the left and right common carotid arteries.
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Glimepiride remarkably improved insulin resistance, suggested by a significant reduction in HOMA-IR, an increase in MCR-g, and a reduction in HbA(1c) without changing extrapancreatic beta-cell function and urine CPR. Increased plasma adiponectin and decreased plasma TNF-alpha may underlie the improvement of insulin resistance with glimepiride.
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Sixteen patients with HNF1A diabetes (8 women; mean age 39 years [range 23-67 years]; BMI 24.9 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) [mean ± SEM]; fasting plasma glucose [FPG] 9.9 ± 0.9 mmol/L; HbA1c 6.4 ± 0.2% [47 ± 3 mmol/mol]) received 6 weeks of treatment with a GLP-1RA (liraglutide) and placebo (tablets), as well as a sulfonylurea (glimepiride) and placebo (injections), in randomized order, in a double-blind, crossover trial. Glimepiride was up-titrated once weekly in a treat-to-target manner; liraglutide was up-titrated once weekly to 1.8 mg once daily. At baseline and at the end of each treatment period a standardized liquid meal test was performed, including a 30-min light bicycle test.
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HbA1c decreased significantly from baseline in Groups A and B, but not in Group C; (Group A: 7.87+/-0.66%, -0.35%, p=0.013; Group B: 7.44+/-0.92%, -0.69%, p=0.0057; Group C: 7.83+/-1.13%, -0.25%, p=0.32). There were no between-treatment differences at endpoint in HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, mean daily blood glucose or symptomatic hypoglycaemia (mean events/patient: Group A, 2.2; Group B, 2.3; Group C, 2.0). At endpoint, 88% of patients in Group A, 81% in Group B and 94% in Group C opted to continue with their assigned regimen.
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The therapeutic benefit of physical activity to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes is commonly accepted. However, the impact of the disease on the acute metabolic response is less clear. To this end, we investigated the effect of type 2 diabetes on exercise-induced plasma metabolite changes and the muscular transcriptional response using a complementary metabolomics/transcriptomics approach.
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The moderate inhibition observed for clopidogrel bioactivation may not present a significant risk for drug-drug interactions between sulfonylureas and clopidogrel. While these findings bode well for multidrug therapies involving sulfonylureas and clopidogrel, clinical investigations are needed to define the clinical risk and benefit for combining these agents for the management of cardiovascular events in diabetic patients.
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Glimepiride has the lowest ratio of insulin release to glucose decrease compared with other sulphonylureas. This prompted us to study in vitro and in vivo in a placebo-controlled study the effect of glimepiride on the redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB).
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This article reports a case of massive bilateral pleural effusion found in a patient with normal cardiac function who was receiving pioglitazone. After the drug was discontinued, the effusion resolved completely, indicating a probable adverse drug reaction.
To assess the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin in combination with glimepiride in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with glimepiride monotherapy.
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Oral antihyperglycaemic prescription trends keep on changing and thus the drug prescription trend study may prove to be powerful exploratory tool for health care providers.
This exploratory analysis assessed and compared patients' treatment satisfaction with empagliflozin plus metformin versus glimepiride plus metformin, using data obtained from the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire, status version (DTSQs) collected in a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy clinical trial.
144 type 2 diabetic subjects on metformin treatment (1000 mg BID) were randomised to 5 weeks of treatment (double-blind) with metformin plus liraglutide, liraglutide or metformin, or metformin plus glimepiride (open label). The dose of liraglutide was increased weekly from 0.5 to 2 mg OD.